SPEED HUMP END PIECE 17 X 35 X 5CM

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SPEED HUMP END PIECE 17 X 35 X 5CM

SPEED HUMP END PIECE 17 X 35 X 5CM

speed hump (also called a road hump, or undulation,[16] and speed ramp) is a rounded traffic calming device used to reduce vehicle speed and volume on residential streets. Humps are placed across the road to slow traffic and are often installed in a series of several humps to prevent cars from speeding before and after the hump. Common speed hump shapes are parabolic, circular, and sinusoidal.[16]Generally, speed humps have a traverse distance of about 12 to 14 feet (3.7 to 4.25 m) and span the width of the road. The height of each hump ranges from 3 to 4 inches (7.5 to 10 cm).[16] The traverse distance and height of each hump determines the speed at which traffic will travel over the devices. Shorter traverse lengths and greater heights slow cars most drastically. When placed in a series 350–550 feet (100–170 m) apart, humps will reduce 85th percentile speeds by 8–10 mph (13–15 km/h).[17]

Warning signs should be used to notify approaching motorists of upcoming humps. Humps generally have pavement markings to enhance visibility and a taper edge near the curb to allow a gap for drainage.[16]

Speed humps are used in locations where low speeds are desired and suitable for the surrounding traffic environment.[18] Speed humps are typically placed on residential roads and are not used on major roads, bus routes, or primary emergency response routes. Placement is generally mid-block between intersections.

Results[edit]

Speed humps typically limit vehicle speeds to about 15–20 mph (25–30 km/h) at the hump and 25–30 mph (40–50 km/h) at the midpoint between humps, depending on spacing. Studies show an average 18% reduction in traffic volume and an average 13% reduction in collisions.[16]

Comparison to speed bumps[edit]

While similar to speed bumps, humps are less aggressive than speed bumps at low speeds. Humps are often used on streets, while bumps are used more in parking lots.[19] While speed bumps generally slow cars to 5–10 mph (8.0–16.1 km/h), humps slow cars to 15–20 mph (24–32 km/h). The narrow traverse distance of speed bumps often allows vehicles to pass over them at high speed with only mild disturbance to the wheels and suspension, and hardly affecting the vehicle cab and its occupants. The relatively long slopes of speed humps are less disruptive at low–moderate speeds, but they create a greater, more sustained vertical deflection; at higher speeds, a more sustained deflection is less-absorbed by vehicle suspensions and has a greater effect on the vehicle as a whole.[20]

Problems[edit]

One problematic aspect of speed humps is their effect on emergency vehicles. Response time is slowed by 3–5 seconds per hump for fire trucks and fire engines and up to 10 seconds for ambulances with patients on board.[16] Speed humps are thus usually not placed on primary response routes. Speed cushions may be placed on these routes instead.

Occasionally, there is an increase in traffic noise from braking and acceleration of vehicles on streets with speed humps, particularly from buses and trucks. Other effects include increased fuel consumption and emissions as well as increased wear and tear on brakes, engine and suspension components.

Damage caused by snow plows during the winter months is an additional concern.

Heavy sedanstrucks, and SUVs are less affected by speed humps, and may not have to slow down as dramatically.

Thin cuts are sometimes placed in the middle of a hump in order to allow bicycle traffic to pass through. However, forcing cyclists to take a particular line on the road compromises their ability to position themselves safely according to the other traffic on the road at the time.

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