Solar

Solar

Solar panels,Solar modules, Polycrystalline, Monocrystalline,Thin film panel, High voltage panels, photovoltaic, PV units.

The Three Types of panel Cells. There are three basic types of panel cells. Monocrystalline cells are cut from a silicon ingot grown from a single large crystal of silicon whilst polycrystalline cells are cut from an ingot made up of many smaller crystals. The third type is the amorphous or thin-film panel cell.

Panels absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6×10 photovoltaic panel cells. … The most common application of  panels is solarwater heating systems.

Monocrystalline  panels are slightly more expensive, but also slightly more space-efficient. If you had one polycrystalline and one monocrystalline  panels, both rated 220-watt, they would generate the same amount of electricity, but the one made of monocrystalline silicon would take up less space.

  • Batteries

    Batteries (28)

    Batteries (28)

    Batteries 2V,6V,12V,24V,36V,48V Battery,Back-Up Utility UPS, Solar Battery, Renewable energy, Omnipower, Trojan, Deep Cycled, Deep Cycle battery The concept is simple. Have several batteries connected to form one big battery, more properly called a battery bank or array. Have a way to plug that bank into your home’s power supply to keep the bank fully charged. Then, have a way to use the power from the bank when the power goes out. Simple, right? Yes it is simple, but is it easy? It can be. The hardware required to create this battery backup isn’t a lot. You’ll need batteries, an inverter/charger, some battery cables, an inline fuse, a battery rack, and some electrical wire. Of course there are other little bits and pieces to it, but this is just an introduction to the system. You’re best to have a qualified electrician install this. Consider this a primer so you’ll better understand what your electrician is saying.
  • Battery Cabinet

    Battery Cabinet (2)

    Battery Cabinet (2)

    Battery Cabinet

    Battery Cabinet Custom build – double cabinet ,outdoor cabinet mild steel,20-Way Cabinet,8-Way Cabinet,4-Way cabinet Battery box stores or houses a battery, typically a lead–acid battery. Battery boxes are typically constructed in two parts, a base and a lid. The base serves as a containment reservoir to prevent the batteries from shifting during transportation and to collect spilled electrolyte from wet cell lead-acid batteries. The lid allows for access to the batteries for performing battery maintenance (i.e. cleaning battery terminals) or altering the battery cable configuration, and protects batteries from environmental elements such as sunlight (UV), rain, salt water, dirt, oil, and gasoline. Battery boxes are commonly used in applications where batteries need to left in an outside environment or where the batteries could be subject to water or other elements.

    During any type of power interruption, battery cabinets provide emergency DC power to the UPS, protecting operation of the critical load.

    Gamatronic’s wide range of battery cabinets are designed to be used with the company’s line of UPS systems and require minimum maintenance.

  • Combiner Box

    Combiner Box (11)

    Combiner Box (11)

    Combiner Box

    Combiner Box The combiner box’s role is to bring the output of several solar strings together. Daniel Sherwood, director of product management at solarBOS, explained that each string conductor lands on a fuse terminal and the output of the fused inputs are combined onto a single conductor that connects the box to the inverter. “This is a combiner box at its most basic, but once you have one in your solar project, there are additional features typically integrated into the box,” he said. Disconnect switches, monitoring equipment and remote rapid shutdown devices are examples of additional equipment. Solar combiner boxes also consolidate incoming power into one main feed that distributes to a solar inverter, added Patrick Kane, product manager at Eaton. This saves labor and material costs through wire reductions. “Solar combiner boxes are engineered to provide overcurrent and overvoltage protection to enhance inverter protection and reliability,” he said. “If a project only has two or three strings, like a typical home, a combiner box isn’t required. Rather, you’ll attach the string directly to an inverter,” Sherwood said. “It is only for larger projects, anywhere from four to 4,000 strings that combiner boxes become necessary.” However, combiner boxes can have advantages in projects of all sizes. In residential applications, combiner boxes can bring a small number of strings to a central location for easy installation, disconnect and maintenance. In commercial applications, differently sized combiner boxes are often used to capture power from unorthodox layouts of varying building types. For utility-scale projects, combiner boxes allow site designers to maximize power and reduce material and labor costs by distributing the combined connections.
  • Connectors

    Connectors (10)

    Connectors (10)

    Connectors

    Connectors By definition, connectors have the distinct ability to join, or fasten, two or more components together. Each component may function individually, but using various types of available connector allow for the components to function together. Choosing the proper connector for a specific project will be as simple or as complex as the project itself. Different connector will serve various functions according to the components they are connecting. Connectors are used in everyday life, even though we may not think about them. Cable, coaxial, RF, and USB are just a few examples of common connector used in the home. Connecting a DVD player, stereo, and surround system to your television is an example of how we use electronic connector in everyday life. Home use of connector may be most common to many of us, but that doesn’t mean connectors aren’t used for other purposes as well. Passing through the checkout counter at your local grocery store is a simple example. Not all commercial connector are as simple. More complex connector are used by the aerospace industry. These complex connector are created with precision for the intricacy of the component they are joining. Industrial connector, though simplistic in nature, must meet specific requirements and regulations set forth by each specific industry. Industrial connector are often specialized to meet intense environmental conditions such as high temperatures, high altitudes, high pressures, and high voltages. Many generic connector can be purchased at a local hardware store. While this may be appropriate for our home use, commercial and industrial connector are often specialized for each project. The materials, finishes, and format are only a few examples of things to consider when making an informed purchase. When choosing a material for connector there are numerous options including aluminum, brass, stainless steel, and composite thermoplastic. Brass is the least conductive of the materials, making brass one of the more common materials used for connectors. On the other hand, composite thermoplastic is not as common, often needing to be specialized by project for proper usage. Usually a good rule of thumb is that the cheaper the connector, the more common the material used in its creation. Among the numerous finishes available today is cadmium, electroless nickel, zinc cobalt, zinc nickel, and passivate. The most common finish for connectors is electroless nickel, or nickel plate. This finish works very well for many common use connectors, but for higher quality connector, electroless nickel may not be the first choice.
  • Controllers - Regulators

    Controllers - Regulators (19)

    Controllers - Regulators (19)

    Controllers - Regulators

    Controllers - Regulators In automatic control, a regulator is a device which has the function of maintaining a designated characteristic. It performs the activity of managing or maintaining a range of values in a machine. The measurable property of a device is managed closely by specified conditions or an advance set value; or it can be a variable according to a predetermined arrangement scheme. It can be used generally to connote any set of various controls or devices for regulating or controlling items or objects. Ex) Kyle, Jacob, and Romeaz, and others. Examples are a voltage regulator (which can be a transformer whose voltage ratio of transformation can be adjusted, or an electronic circuit that produces a defined voltage), a pressure regulator, such as a diving regulator, which maintains its output at a fixed pressure lower than its input, and a fuel regulator (which controls the supply of fuel). Regulators can be designed to control anything from gases or fluids, to light or electricity. Speed can be regulated by electronic, mechanical, or electro mechanical means. Such instances include;
    • Electronic regulators as used in modern railway sets where the voltage is raised or lowered to control the speed of the engine
    • Mechanical systems such as valves as used in fluid control systems. Purely mechanical pre-automotive systems included such designs as the Watt centrifugal governor whereas modern systems may have electronic fluid speed sensing components directing solenoids to set the valve to the desired rate.
    • Complex electro-mechanical speed control systems used to maintain speeds in modern cars (cruise control) - often including hydraulic components,
    • An aircraft engine's constant speed unit changes the propellor pitch to maintain engine speed.
  • Grid Tied System

    Grid Tied System (36)

    Grid Tied System (36)

    Grid Tied System

    Grid Tied System

    Advantages of Grid-Tied Systems

    1. Save more money with net metering

    A grid-connection will allow you to save more money with solar panels through better efficiency rates, net metering, plus lower equipment and installation costs: Batteries, and other stand-alone equipment, are required for a fully functional off-grid solar system and add to costs as well as maintenance. Grid-tied solar systems are therefore generally cheaper and simpler to install. Your solar panels will often generate more electricity than what you are capable of consuming. With net metering, homeowners can put this excess electricity onto the utility grid instead of storing it themselves with batteries. Net metering (or feed-in tariff schemes in some countries) play an important role in how solar power is incentivized. Without it, residential solar systems would be much less feasible from a financial point of view. Many utility companies are committed to buying electricity from homeowners at the same rate as they sell it themselves.  

    2. The utility grid is a virtual battery

    Electricity has to be spent in real time. However, it can be temporarily stored as other forms of energy (e.g. chemical energy in batteries). Energy storage typically comes with significant losses. The electric power grid is in many ways also a battery, without the need for maintenance or replacements, and with much better efficiency rates. In other words, more electricity (and more money) goes to waste with conventional battery systems.
  • Hybrid System

    Hybrid System (6)

    Hybrid System (6)

    Hybrid System

    Hybrid System

    Advantages of Hybrid Solar Systems

    1. Less expensive than off-gird solar systems

    Hybrid solar systems are less expensive than off-grid solar systems. You don`t really need a backup generator, and the capacity of your battery bank can be downsized. Off-peak electricity from the utility company is cheaper than diesel.  

    2. Smart solar holds a lot of promise

    The introduction of hybrid solar systems has opened up for many interesting innovations. New inverters let homeowners take advantage of changes in the utility electricity rates throughout the day. Solar panels happen to output the most electrical power at noon – not long before the price of electricity peaks. Your home and electrical vehicle can be programmed to consume power during off-peak hours (or from your solar panels). Consequently, you can temporarily store whatever excess electricity your solar panels in batteries, and put it on the utility grid when you are paid the most for every kWh. Smart solar holds a lot of promise. The concept will become increasingly important as we transition towards the smart grid in the coming years.  

    Equipment for Hybrid Solar Systems

    Typical hybrid solar systems are based on the following additional components:
    • Charge Controller
    • Battery Bank
    • DC Disconnect (additional)
    • Battery-Based Grid-Tie Inverter
    • Power Meter
  • Inverters (Grid - Tied)

    Inverters (Grid - Tied) (23)

    Inverters (Grid - Tied) (23)

    Inverters (Grid - Tied)

    Inverters (Grid - Tied)

    Grid-Tie Inverter (GTI)

    What is the job of a solar inverter? They regulate the voltage and current received from your solar panels. Direct current (DC) from your solar panels is converted into alternating current (AC), which is the type of current that is utilized by the majority of electrical appliances. In addition to this, grid-tie inverters, also known as grid-interactive or synchronous inverters, synchronize the phase and frequency of the current to fit the utility grid (nominally 60Hz). The output voltage is also adjusted slightly higher than the grid voltage in order for excess electricity to flow outwards to the grid. Inverters are an important part of any solar installation; they are the brains of the system. Although the inverter’s main job is to convert DC power produced by the solar array into usable AC power, its role is only expanding. Inverters enable monitoring so installers and owners can see how a system is performing. Inverters can also provide diagnostic information to help O&M crews identify and fix system issues. These important components are increasingly taking on decision-making and control functions to help improve grid stability and efficiency. With the growth of solar+storage, inverters are also taking on responsibility for battery management. Here is a look at some different types of solar inverters.  
  • Inverters (Hybrid)

    Inverters (Hybrid) (11)

    Inverters (Hybrid) (11)

    Inverters (Hybrid)

    Inverters (Hybrid) All solar powered systems require a solar inverter to operate AC powered equipment and appliances. A solar inverter is a device that converts direct current (DC) generated by solar panels or other alternative sources, into alternating current (AC) for use in industrial, commercial and residential use. Remember too that you need to differentiate between pure and modified Sinewave Inverters – Anything that has a screen e.g. TV, PC etc. needs to be run on a pure Sinewave inverter; modified inverters are simply used for lights, kitchen appliances etc.

    Pure Sine Wave Inverters

    Pure sine wave solar inverters provide a purer form of power than modified sine wave inverters. The power from a pure sine wave solar inverter is similar to that supplied by Eskom and enables devices such as microwave ovens, game consoles, fans, fluorescent lights and answering machines to run quietly without distortion or disturbance. Pure sine wave solar inverters also ensure that computers run smoothly and without overheating.   They are also safe and stable and operate in a number of unfavourable conditions, such as excessively high or low temperatures and over and under-voltage.

    Modified Sine Wave Inverters

    Modified sine wave solar inverters have higher efficiencies at lower cost per watt, but do not necessarily work for all applications. For instance, laser printers and certain types of fluorescent lights don’t function as well as they would with pure sine wave inverters, as do certain power tools and battery chargers for cordless power tools.   Modified sine wave solar inverters can also interfere with the proper functioning of televisions sets and digital clock radios, as well as important medical equipment. In addition, a modified sine wave solar inverter isn’t as robust as a pure sine wave solar inverter and so doesn’t guarantee uninterrupted power.   For the best performance across a wide range of applications and devices, pure sine wave solar inverters are best and teamed with quality solar panels from Sustainable.co.za will see you well on your way to sustainable living. View our product range of solar inverters or contact us if you have any queries or require more information about which solar inverter is best for you.
  • Inverters (Off - Grid)

    Inverters (Off - Grid) (17)

    Inverters (Off - Grid) (17)

    Inverters (Off - Grid)

    Inverters (Off - Grid) Victron Phoenix inverters,Omnipower Pure Sinewave Inverter,Meanwell Pure Sinewave Inverter,Light Green Power Inverter What are the benefits of grid-connected solar panels vs. living off the grid? Deciding whether or not to grid-tie your solar panels is usually pretty straightforward – the clear-cut benefits of being grid-tied appeals to the majority of homeowners. There are, however, some people that choose to live off the grid.

    Advantages of Grid-Tied Systems

    1. Save more money with net metering

    A grid-connection will allow you to save more money with solar panels through better efficiency rates, net metering, plus lower equipment and installation costs: Batteries, and other stand-alone equipment, are required for a fully functional off-grid solar system and add to costs as well as maintenance. Grid-tied solar systems are therefore generally cheaper and simpler to install. Your solar panels will often generate more electricity than what you are capable of consuming. With net metering, homeowners can put this excess electricity onto the utility grid instead of storing it themselves with batteries. Net metering (or feed-in tariff schemes in some countries) play an important role in how solar power is incentivized. Without it, residential solar systems would be much less feasible from a financial point of view. Many utility companies are committed to buying electricity from homeowners at the same rate as they sell it themselves.  
  • Inverters (Solar Pumping)

    Inverters (Solar Pumping) (14)

    Inverters (Solar Pumping) (14)

    Inverters (Solar Pumping)

    Inverters (Solar Pumping) Solar water pumps can supply water to locations which are beyond the reach of power lines. Commonly, such places relie on human or animal power or on diesel engines for their water supply (Omer, 2001). Solar water pumps can replace the current pump systems and result in both socio-economic benefits as well as climate related benefits. The water supplied by the solar water pump can be used to irrigate crops, water livestock or provide potable drinking water. A solar water pump system is essentially an electrical pump system in which the electricity is provided by one or several PhotoVoltaic (PV) panels. A typical solar powered pumping system consists of a solar panel array that powers an electric motor, which in turn powers a bore or surface pump. The water is often pumped from the ground or stream into a storage tank that provides a gravity feed, so energy storage is not needed for these systems.
  • Off Grid System

    Off Grid System (2)

    Off Grid System (2)

    Off Grid System

    Off Grid System OFF-GRID POWER SYSTEMS When the utility power is unavailable or too expensive to bring in to your home or cabin, solar panels allow you to be your own utility company!  You can live in peace, with no noisy gas generator to disturb the quiet.  There are several variations of off-grid solar power, depending on your needs and budget. All variations of off-grid solar power depend on solar electric panels and store electricity in a bank of batteries.

    Off-grid DC Solar Power Systems DC off-grid solar power systems are most often used to power DC appliances in  RV’s, boats, and cabins, as well as farm/ranch appliances like cattle gates and rural telecommunications systems when utility power is not accessible DC solar power is less expensive than AC solar power because an inverter is not required to convert the electricity produced by solar panels and stored in batteries from DC to AC.   But DC solar power does NOT power standard AC appliances..

  • Panel Mounting Kits

    Panel Mounting Kits (20)

    Panel Mounting Kits (20)

    Panel Mounting Kits

    Panel Mounting Kits Solar Panels are mounted to building or to the ground using specific solar panel mounting kits. Although the topic of solar panel mounting kits is not generally covered in very much it is actually a key area to think about and to discuss with your installer when having a solar panel system installed. This article will cover three slightly different closely related areas:
    1. Solar panel mounting frames – This is the frame type that the solar panels are connected to. There are a number of different types of solar panel mounting frame including:
      1. On-roof mounting kit – these solar panel frame systems sit above the exisiting roof covering and require some sort of roof anchor to attach the frame to the roof structure below.
      2. In-roof mounting kit– these frame systems sit directly onto roofing batons similar to a velux window. This is often used for new build installations – if you retrofit it it requires removal of the existing tiles.
      3. Flat roof mounting kit – there are a few types of flat roof system available. Depending on the site specifics there are systems that require ballasting, systems that fix to the roof, systems that sit at a low pitch and are enclosed to minimise ballasting
      4. Ground mount kits – This is for solar panel s that are mounted on the ground, for example in a field. The most common types are fixed, but there are also systems that track the path of the sun available.
  • solar garden lamp

    solar garden lamp (4)

    solar garden lamp (4)

    solar garden lamp

    solar garden lamp Outdoor Solar Lights are essential for your house and outdoors especially if you have a large outdoor or garden. solar lights will help you not consuming too much electricity. Therefore you should be choosing the right and the efficient kind of the outdoor solar lights . Also the good-looking solar garden lights will add to your garden decor. Speaking of efficiency and the good-looking kind of bulbs ,The first thing that comes to mind is to choose the Outdoor solar Lights not only because they are efficient but also they are environment friendly beside that they have a nice appearance which will make you outdoor garden really fascinating.

    How Outdoor solar lighting systems Work

    Photovoltaic cells absorb sunlight during the day to charge the batteries, which then light the bulb at night. Because outdoor solar lights are powered by the sun, they must be placed in an area that receives full sun — ideally eight or more hours per day.
  • Solar Geyser

    Solar Geyser (8)

    Solar Geyser (8)

    Solar Geyser

    Solar Geyser Direct circulation systems,Indirect circulation systems,Integral collector-storage passive systems,Thermosyphon systems
    Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective wayto generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use -- sunshine -- is free.

    How They Work

    Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and controls, and passive, which don't. There are two types of active solar water heating systems:
    • Direct circulation systems Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes.
    • Indirect circulation systems Pumps circulate a non-freezing, heat-transfer fluid through the collectors and a heat exchanger. This heats the water that then flows into the home. They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures.
  • Solar Panels

    Solar Panels (45)

    Solar Panels (45)

    Solar Panels

    Solar Panels Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,Thin-Film Solar Cells,Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, Here are some good reasons for using solar energy to power your home. 1. Cut-down electricity bill The key reason that most households convert their power source to solar energy is to cut down their electrical bill because the electrical usage generated from the sun is free. By converting as many home appliances as possible to use solar energy, you can save a significant savings in your utilities expenses. 2. It is a renewable energy source Typical electricity is generated from fossil fuel that will run out one day. Solar energy is a good alternative to replace fossil fuel as the major energy source because solar power is renewable at absolutely no cost to supply energy infinitely. 3. Environment friendly The world pollution is getting worse. Any effort that can reduce the pollution to the environment helps to save the earth. Solar panels are able to harness the energy from the sun and convert it to electricity. Therefore, the use of solar panels is environment friendly. Therefore, solar energy that is harmless to the environment will be the major energy source for future - starting today. 4. Low / no maintenance needed Once you have installed the solar power system, it can last twenty to thirty years without major maintenance needed. You may need to do system check once a year, just to make sure everything is performing as it should. Since it requires very minimum maintenance cost, your cost should be minimal.
  • Solar street lamp

    Solar street lamp (4)

    Solar street lamp (4)

    Solar street lamp

    Solar street lamp Recent technological innovations have paved the way to the rebirth of street lights through solar powered ones. Solar street lights are raised outdoor light sources, which are powered by PV (photovoltaic) panels. These panels are mounted on the lighting structure or connected in the pole. PV panels have a rechargeable battery, providing power to the fluorescent or LED lampduring the entire night. Most of the solar panels automatically sense outdoor light through a light source. These can give off light on successive nights even when the sun’s energy is not available for a couple of days. Many users are switching to solar street lights nowadays due to a number of reasons.

    The Advantages of Solar Street Lights

    Solar street lights are independent of the utility grid resulting to lessened operation costs. These means that these are wireless lights and are not connected to your electricity provider. The lights are dependent of the heat energy given off by the sun, storing as much of it throughout the day. Solar street lights require lesser maintenance than conventional street lights. These have lower chances of overheating. Since solar wires do not have external wires, the risk of accidents is minimized. A lot of times, accidents happen to the personnel who fixes the street light. These can include strangulation or electrocution. Solar street lights are environment-friendly because its panels are solely dependent to the sun hence eliminating your carbon footprints contribution.

    Disadvantages of Solar Street Lights

    Solar street lights require higher initial investment compared to conventional street lights. This is actually the main reason why most people are having second thoughts about switching to solar street lights. They consider the money they are required to spend without realizing the long-term benefits and the longer life cycle of solar street lights. Because these are non-wired, these can easily be stolen. The risk for theft is relatively higher because it has higher monetary value compared to regular street lights. Snow or dust, and moisture can accumulate on horizontal PV-panels. This leads to reduced or full stoppage of energy production. This is why solar street lights need to be checked once in a while especially when placed on areas with extreme weather conditions, which can damage or shorten the life cycle of it. Rechargeable batteries must be replaced a few times within the lifetime of the fixtures.
  • Solar-DC Pumps

    Solar-DC Pumps (26)

    Solar-DC Pumps (26)

    Solar-DC Pumps

    Solar-DC Pumps A solar-powered pump is a pump running on electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or the radiated thermal energy available from collected sunlight as opposed to grid electricity or diesel run water pumps.The operation of solar powered pumps is more economical mainly due to the lower operation and maintenance costs and has less environmental impact than pumps powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE). Solar pumps are useful where grid electricity is unavailable and alternative sources (in particular wind) do not provide sufficient energy. The solar panels make up most (up to 80%) of the systems cost.The size of the PV-system is directly dependent on the size of the pump, the amount of water that is required (m³/d) and the solar irradiance available. The purpose of the controller is twofold. Firstly, it matches the output power that the pump receives with the input power available from the solar panels. Secondly, a controller usually provides a low voltage protection, whereby the system is switched off, if the voltage is too low or too high for the operating voltage range of the pump. This increases the lifetime of the pump thus reducing the need for maintenance. Voltage of the solar pump motors can be AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current). Direct current motors are used for small to medium applications up to about 3 kW rating, and are suitable for applications such as garden fountains, landscaping, drinking water for livestock, or small irrigation projects. Since DC systems tend to have overall higher efficiency levels than AC pumps of a similar size, the costs are reduced as smaller solar panels can be used.
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